Thursday, August 25, 2016

On the Road in Water Wonderland

At the Menominee Marina

Dear George,
Michigan is such a great state.  Along with the thousands of highway miles through untouched pine and cedar forests, residents and visitors continually find themselves next-door to  sizeable, gorgeous bodies of water.  In addition to 2,400 miles of shoreline on four of the five Great Lakes (Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie), the state has over 11,000 inland lakes and 300 rivers.  Katja and I were reminded of this once again on our recent trip to a family gathering in Menominee, followed by camping across the U.P. and then several days down the Lake Michigan coast. 

We left Cincinnati on Tuesday, Aug. 9, drove up through Chicago, and stopped for a visit at the Packer Hall of Fame at Green Bay.  Katja and I got married just a few months before the Packers won their first NFL Championship under Vince Lombardi, and my parents took us to several games at Lambeau Field during the Packer's early Super Bowl years.  Being surrounded by all that legendary history brought tears to our eyes.  

Panorama in the Packers Hall of Fame

We arrived in Menominee on Wednesday afternoon and went directly to our family Farm in Birch Creek where our New Orleans, Seattle, and Detroit-based  group had already arrived (J & K, L, V; Greg; Jennifer & Win, Vincent, Ingrid; Jessica & her twin babes, Peter & Maya; as well as my cousins Ann and John who live in the twin cities).  After an evening of revelry, we joined our long-time friends, Bob and Lois A., at their wonderful house on the Green Bay shore where we would be staying.  Bob and Lois are gracious hosts, and we relished the opportunity to spend time with them. 

Farm was looking its best

V with a frog on her nose

Green Bay from the A's front yard

Menominee, as always, was a treat.  We visited Henes Park, the marina, the First Street historical district, the library and historical museum, all the local thrift shops, Friday-Saturday yard sales, and various shops and restaurants in the twin cities.  I abandoned my diet and enjoyed various delicacies at Berg's Landing (whitefish), Schloegel's (still more whitefish), Jozwiak's (two Wabashes), the Rail House Restaurant (Friday night fish fry), Culvers (repeat visits), the Downtown Ice Cream and Sandwich Shop, and The Wild North in Birch Creek ($1.25 cheeseburgers).  The highlight of our Menominee stay was a family trip to the DeYoung Family Zoo at Wallace in Menominee County, home to the largest number of big cats of any zoo in the Midwest.  

Zookeeper Carrie cuddles with a lion

V helps zookeeper Bud drive while L enjoys being a passenger

After sad goodbyes on Monday, we drove north to Munising, got a campground site along the Lake Superior shore, and enjoyed the Pictured Rocks sunset boat cruise.  The Pictured Rocks are among the U.P.'s most splendid tourist attractions.   There are fifteen miles of sandstone cliffs along the Lake Superior shore, up to 200 feet high and dating back 500 million years.  The cliff's elaborate multi-color designs result from iron, manganese, copper, and other minerals in the groundwater creating streaks down the face of the stone.  

Indian Head, Pictured Rocks

One of the cliff's many caves

On Tuesday we travelled to St. Ignace, got a two-night camping spot at the woodsy Straits State Park campground, and took a 3-hour boatride through the Soo Locks at Sault Ste. Marie.  Years ago we watched the locks traffic from an observation platform, but we'd never actually gone through them ourselves.  The locks, originally constructed in 1855, were built at the St. Mary River rapids which result from a 21-foot drop between Lake Superior and Lake Huron.  Ten thousand ships pass through the locks each year, and the 1,200-foot Poe Lock accommodates ocean-going super-freighters.    

On the dock for the Soo Boat Tour

Heading into the westbound lock

Thursday we crossed the Mackinac Bridge to the Lower Peninsula.  Five miles long, the Mackinac is the longest suspension bridge in the Western Hemisphere and the third longest in the world.  The bridge cost about $2 billion in today's dollars, five workmen died in its construction, 150 million vehicles had crossed the bridge by September 2009, high winds can cause it to sway up to 35 feet from its resting position, and it takes seven years to paint the bridge (as soon as it’s finished, they begin all over again).  The Straits are 250 feet deep at the bridge's center, and its towers rise 552 feet above water level.  We get nervous and excited each time we cross.

The Mackinac Bridge from our campground at St. Ignace

Lower Peninsula resort towns along the Lake Michigan coast are more fancy and upscale than the U.P.’s.  On Thursday we drove through Traverse City, then stopped in Petoskey (visiting the harbor and the historical museum) and Charlevoix (downtown sidewalk sales where I bought a Charlevoix hoodie for $7), before camping at Manistee and seeing "Captain Fantastic" at the old-timey Vogue Theater.  Friday we continued down the coast -- Ludington (the Lake Michigan dunes), Pentwater (antiques and art galleries), Muskegon (the Muskegon Art Museum, a small gem), and Grand Haven (art galleries and more sidewalk sales).  At Grand Haven we camped among the Norway pines at P.J. Hoffmeister State Park.  

The harbor at Petoskey

The waterway to Lake Michigan at Charlevoix 

The Grand River, Manistee 

The Lake Michigan shoreline, Ludington

Katja relaxes at P.J. Hoffmeister State Park, Grand Haven 

We'd planned to head east toward Ann Arbor on Saturday, but a severe weather forecast shortened our trip, and we headed directly south toward Cincinnati.  Heavy winds and rains, as well as tornado warnings, made driving hazardous in Indiana, and we settled for a motel room north of Indianapolis.  Katja was happy with our newfound luxury, and I enjoyed getting a good night's sleep too.  Before we knew it, we were back home, just in time to watch Andy Murray vs. Marin Cilic in the Western & Southern Open men’s final.  

Here are some things that I take away from our two weeks on the road: 

·       We are lucky to still have a U.P. family property for annual gatherings (and my parents would be pleased and proud).
·       The little children make one optimistic about life and the future. 
·       Home towns arouse more memories than one can possibly assimilate. 
·       The air is much clearer in the Northland. 
·       Culver's has the best soft serve sundaes in the world (and good butter burgers too). 
·       The forest lowers one’s blood pressure.
·       I'm proud of Katja for being a good camper. 
·       It's possible to survive without immediate access to TV and the computer. 
·       I'm happy that I could still drive 2000 miles, annoyed that I took wrong turns a couple of times.
·       I wish we would see our family members (spread across the continent) more often than we do.

Monday, August 8, 2016

Is Life Joyous or Painful or Goofy?

Dear George,
When we were college freshmen, my hallmates and I spent most of our time talking about The Meaning of Life.  It was a discussion that went on endlessly because we could never reach a conclusion.  At first we quickly agreed that life has no meaning.  But then we’d conclude that you could make life meaningful if you worked at it.  Then we tried to figure out just  what that would be like.  And we would inevitably decide that whatever we chose wouldn’t be intrinsically meaningful anyway.  As it turned out, all this angst about the meaning of life was just a byproduct of being in college.  It wasn’t really the meaning of life that was problematic, but rather the meaning of being an undergraduate student.  Once I started graduate school, I was too busy to worry about the meaning of life, and I certainly didn’t give it much thought during my next forty-three years in the work force.  But now that I’m retired and have endless time on my hands, I’ve taken to pondering the meaning of life once again. The only difference from college is that I don’t talk incessantly about it with my friends and I’m aware of more important things to be depressed about, e.g., national politics.  

Here is my current sense of it.  It seems to me that there are a finite number of possibilities in trying to pinpoint the meaning of life.  These are the main candidates: 

1)     Life is joyous. 
2)     Life is painful.
3)     Life is filled with mystery.
4)     Life is challenging.
5)     Life is frightening.
6)     Life is boring.
7)     Life is goofy.

I think you could make a case for any of these options, and probably the best answer is that life is a little bit of this and a little bit of that.  It definitely isn’t just one thing.  But I’ve approached this question by thinking back over personal events in my life in recent months and seeing how many fit these various alternatives.  I’ve had one or two occasions where something was mysterious or painful, but no more than that.  I have been frightened by half a dozen things, but that’s more my anxiousness than the nature of life per se.  Unfettered joy is pretty rare, if it exists at all.   I’ve definitely had moments of boredom every day, but it doesn’t make sense to conclude that the meaning of life is boredom.  Most of all, I can think of endless instances that suggests that Life is Goofy.  Here are a few recent examples (all of these being completely true): 

·       After my class on modern art I decided that an outstanding project would be to take photographs of my left hand over the course of a Tuesday.  I took about 50 photos over the next several hours (e.g., my hand on the computer keyboard, grasping the milk container, opening the screen door, scratching my ankle, etc.).  Unfortunately none of these images had any aesthetic value whatsoever.  I abandoned my project as idiotic and deleted the photos from my camera.   
·       Leaving the Krohn Conservatory I walked straight into a floor-to-ceiling glass panel, having mistaken it for an open doorway.  The noise of my forehead smacking into the glass startled nearby patrons who asked if I were o.k.  I said, “I’m fine.  I just wanted to see if I could walk through that window.” 
·       I picked up a shiny penny off the sidewalk, then changed my mind and put it back down for a child to find.  After five days the penny was still there.  I couldn’t believe how nonchalant today’s children are.
·       After two years I decided to finally cash in the $50 Visa gift card that I’d been given as a birthday present.  Much to my dismay, it was now worth only $2, having accumulated $48 worth of bank charges.  I cashed in my former $50 gift card at Graeter’s where I used it to buy half an ice cream cone.
·       My hearing isn't so hot.  When I went through the drive-through lane at Long John Silver's, the young woman asked, "Would you like to try our new xytroppklm frejki?"   I asked her to repeat what she said, and this time it sounded like "ggryzkl merpp".  So I said, "Yes, I'll try it."  It was one piece of fish, one crabcake, and four fried shrimp -- not bad.  I would like to try it again next time, but I don't know what to order.   
·       We were walking along at the zoo when a man and his ten-year-old son approached us from the opposite direction.  The man's T-shirt read, "My kid shot a deer while your honor student was in school."  The boy looked very morose.  I would too if I had to walk around the zoo with a moron for a father. 
·       I was driving through a green light on Queen City Ave. when a teenage girl, talking on a cell phone, stepped right into my path.  I hit the brakes and stopped a few feet from her, but she didn't notice.  Then she walked right in front of another oncoming car which came to a grinding halt.  I hoped she would finish her call soon.  
·       Recently I started doing the Stairmaster at the fitness center, and, though it was very hard, I worked up to 150 steps after a couple of weeks.  I was feeling like an Olympic athlete until I noticed that the sixtysomething man next to me had just reached 1700 steps.  I went from Olympic athlete to total wimp in less than a second.  
·       I was driving to Mt. Storm to take a couple of photos of the flowering trees when I noticed a man walking along the road carrying his 30-40 pound dog in his arms.  When I came back five minutes later the man was still walking along carrying his dog.  Maybe the dog was really old and the good-hearted man didn't want him to miss their daily walks.  I admired the man and was happy for the dog. 
·       We went to a funeral recently where the preacher asked everybody to close their eyes.  Then he asked people to raise their right hands if they had committed a sin and wanted Christ's forgiveness.  I couldn't stand the tension so I opened my right eye and peeked around.  I didn't see a single raised hand.  The preacher said, "Thank you very much, is there anyone else?"  I think he was faking it.  
·       Despite her reluctance, I talked Katja into going by herself to the Saturday afternoon Metropolitan Opera broadcast at a local suburban cinema.  When she arrived after driving twenty minutes on the expressway to get there, she discovered that there was no opera scheduled for that day.  I had been looking at the wrong week in the schedule. 
·       An elderly, well-dressed lady on Ludlow Avenue asked if I had a spare nickel I could give her.  Though I never give money to panhandlers, I rummaged around in my coin purse and finally found a nickel.  Later I wondered how long it takes her to get to a dollar.  
·       Our neighborhood pharmacy had a sign above a bin full of canned strawberry margaritas that read: “Regular Price, $1.00; Sale Price, 10/$10.00.  Later I went to a yard sale where you could buy one animal trap for $37, but two for $75. 
·       Katja and I constantly disagree about setting the air conditioning thermostat.  When the furnace man came to do a tuneup, I asked him what temperature he recommended for air conditioning in the summertime.  Having had years of experience in these household questions, he said, “I recommend whatever temperature your wife prefers.” 
·       At the zoo I overheard a five-year-old boy ask his dad why somebody’s uniform was sitting on top of a rock in the black bear cage.  The father explained that that was all that was left after the bear ate the zookeeper.  
It seems pretty obvious that the best answer is that Life is Goofy.  I realize that this isn’t an ennobling conclusion, but it does seem to be rooted in reality.  I wish I’d realized this in college because I wouldn’t have wasted so much time suffering and worrying about this or that.  Now that I’m in touch with the basic truth, I plan to go with the flow, be amused at the things that used to irritate me, and spend more time chuckling.  They say that laughter is the best thing for your health and well-being, and who can argue with that?  Actually that’s sort of goofy.  

Tuesday, August 2, 2016

Menominee Pioneers

The Menominee River

Dear George,
Northern Wisconsin and the U.P. were wilderness regions until well into the 1800’s (and, of course, large chunks still are today).  Nonetheless, archeologists have established that members of the Old Copper Culture lived in the Menominee-Marinette area 10,000 years ago.  The first recorded inhabitants of the Menominee River Basin were the Menominees, known as the “wild rice people.”  Early French explorers described a tribe of 40-80 men living in a small village on the Menominee River near the present-day Riverside Cemetery.  The tribe also had a summer camp near what’s now Pine Beach along the Green Bay shore in Marinette.  By the early 1820’s the population of the Menominee tribe had reached about 500, spread across a dozen villages in Wisconsin.  As European-American settlers were drawn to the area by vast lumber and mineral resources, the Menominee faced encroachment pressures and eventually sold most of their land between 1821 and 1848 through a series of treaties with the federal government.  (6) (20)

Louis Chappee, the first settler of European origin on the Menominee River, established a fur trading post there in 1796.  Farnsworth and Brush built the first sawmill on the river in 1832, and a logging boom had its start by the 1850’s.  Charles MacLeod constructed the first frame building in what was to become the village of Menominee in 1852.  Menominee County’s population in 1860 was less than 500, most of whom were loggers working on the Menominee River.  Menominee County was officially organized in 1863, and the city of Menominee was chartered in 1883.  Thanks to accounts by E. S. Ingalls (1876), the Western Historical Company (1883), A. L. Sawyer (1911), C. Moore (1915), and others, we have available a rich history available of the city of Menominee and the people who played major roles in its development.  Drawing from these and other sources, here are stories of several of the most prominent Menominee pioneers during the early to mid-1800’s: Louis Chappee, William Farnsworth, John G. Kittson, Charles McLeod, Andrus Eveland, and John Quimby.  (4) (12) (20) (numbers refer to sources at end)

Louis Chappee’s gravestone, Menominee County

Louis Chappee
Stanislaus (Louis) Chappee (also spelled Chappieu or Chaput; pronounced “Shappee”), a French-Canadian fur trader, was the first settler of European ancestry in the Menominee River area.  Chappee was born in 1766 in the parish of L’Assumption, Quebec, Canada.  He came to Green Bay in 1783, then to Menominee in about 1796 where he established a trading post on the Wisconsin side of the Menominee River (close to where the Hattie Street bridge now stands).  Most historical accounts indicate that Chappee was an agent of the British American Fur Company which was operating in the area.  At that time thousands of Indians visited the Menominee River every year because of its abundance of deer, beaver, otter, mink, muskrat, bear, and other game.  Chappee was described as a bold, powerful man who carried on a successful business with Native Americans in the area for a number of years.  He often had numerous French-Canadian men who worked for him, and his trading post had the character of a well garrisoned fort.  Historian Alvah L. Sawyer (1911) wrote: “He seems to have preferred the solitudes and savagery of nature to the civilization he left behind, and he continued that solitary life, with only the Indians and his helpers as his companions…”  E.S. Ingalls (1876) recounts an anecdote about Chappee being confronted by a band of Indians who had come there to rob him.  Rolling a keg of gunpowder into the room, Chappee pointed a loaded pistol into it and threatened to blow everyone up.  Impressed with his courage, the Indians made friends with him and traded with him for decades thereafter.  Along with most Green Bay fur traders, Chapee fought in the British attack on Fort Mackinac during the War of 1812, then returned to the fur trade after the war, working for Green Bay fur magnate John Lawe.  Despite his success, Chappee was forced to move five miles upriver on the Michigan side in 1824 by William Farnsworth and Charles Brush,  competing fur traders who had arrived a year earlier and who wanted the Menominee River site for a sawmill.  Chappee lived at his new trading post and traded with the Menominees and other tribes until his death on May 6, 1854.  Chappee was married to Ke No Ny Ka, a Native American woman, and they had five children, Jacques, Pauline, Louis, John, and Therese.  Fellow pioneer John Kittson wrote, “He lived a strange life in the bosom of primeval forests, and saw strange and startling changes in his time.”  There is a historical marker in Menominee County near Chappee’s burial site at the rapids along County Road 581.  The inscription reads: “Louis Chappee, 1766-1856 --  S. Chaput, a noble Frenchman and soldier, explorer, trader and trapper on the Menominee River.  He sleeps here among his red brothers, on the bank of the beautiful Menominee River.”  (4) (6) (11) (13) (17) (19)

William Farnsworth (1796-1860)

William Farnsworth
Fur trader William Farnsworth was born in Vermont in 1796.  After establishing a trading post and founding the city of Sheboygan, he arrived at the Menominee River in 1822.  E.S. Ingalls (1876, p. 14) describes Farnsworth and his Detroit-based partner Charles Brush as “stirring, wide-awake business men, but without so nice a sense of meum and teum as would stand particularly in the way of their carrying out any enterprise that they might undertake.”  Farnsworth’s first step was to force Chappee to relinquish his trading post.  Chappee had had a dispute with local Indians in which he lost his thumb, and he had three Indians imprisoned in Green Bay.  Farnsworth intervened and obtained the Indians’ release, whereupon they granted him five miles of land along the Menominee River, including the site of Chappee’s trading post.  Farnsworth took over the post on a day when Chappee was absent and removed all the latter’s possessions.  Chappee transported his goods upriver by canoes and built a new stockade at the foot of the rapids which came to bear his name, Chappee’s Rapids.  Farnsworth and his common law wife, Queen Marinette, ran the trading post for several years until Marinette took it over herself.  Farnsworth and Brush were the first entrepreneurs to pack whitefish from the Menominee River in barrels for the commercial market.  Then, responding to the decline of the fur trade, the two built the Menominee River’s first sawmill in 1832.  The water-powered mill cut 6,000-8,000 feet of timber daily, and its initial yield was used to build the first frame house on the Marinette side of the river for Queen Marinette.  Farnsworth and Brush operated their mill for several years, but their business failed and was sold at a Sheriff’s auction for eighteen barrels of white fish.  Farnsworth also owned two Lake Michigan sailing vessels.  He died in a steamer collision on Lake Michigan between Waukegan and Chicago in 1860.  (2) (3) (7) (9) (15) (18) (19)

John G. Kittson
John Kittson was the fourth man of European ancestry to locate on the Menominee River.  Kittson was born in 1812 in Sorel, Quebec, Canada, the son of a British Army officer and his wife who had been stationed near Montreal.  Kittson came to the Menominee area in 1826 as a "courier du bois" and a representative of the American Fur Company.  He located his trading post on the Menominee River at the Wausaukee Bend, about thirty miles northwest of Menominee.  The site was at a natural ford which provided a cross for the Indian Trail to central Wisconsin and which led northward to the ancient copper mines in the Lake Superior country.  Kittson helped members of the Menominee tribe in their communications with the U.S government which led them to refer affectionately to him as “The Writer”.  Kittson established the first farms in Menominee County, one at Wausaukee Bend and a second just above Chappee’s trading post.  He taught the Menominees improved methods of farming.  Kittson established an Indian cemetery on his farm, and his friend, Louis Chappee, was buried there.  He built a huge log barn at a second farm at the Ox-Bow bend of the river, housing horses at one end and cows at the other.   He also built a pelt storage house about a quarter of a mile down the river, preserving pelts there until they could be taken to the Green Bay office in the spring.  Kittson and his two wives had approximately eleven children, one of whom was killed in the Civil War in Sherman’s march to the sea.   Kittson himself died in Marinette in 1872 from exposure and suffering resulting from fighting the Peshtigo fire of 1871.  In 1881 his wife Margaret and son Robert sold the Ox-Bow farm.   Judge Ingalls said of Kittson: "He was a very intelligent and stirring man... He had great influence over the Indians, and was at all times a friend to their interests."  (4) (5) (7) (16) (13)

Charles McLeod
Charles McLeod was born in Ogdensburg, New York, in 1812.  A fur trader, hunter, and trapper, he arrived in Menominee in 1832.  He built the first frame house in Menominee County outside of the current city limits.  In 1841 McLeod built the Menominee River’s second lumber mill on Twin Island.  Because iron was scarce, all the cogs for the machinery were made of wood.  Unfortunately, McLeod’s business was not profitable, and he abandoned it after five years.  McLeod married Elizabeth Jacobs, daughter of Queen Marinette and her first husband John B. Jacobs.  The McLeod’s had three sons, John, Charles, and Alexander, and three daughters who died in early childhood, Mary, Elizabeth, and Annie.  For the benefit of their own and neighbors’ children, McLeod built the first schoolhouse on the Menominee River.  He was a member of the first county board of canvassers, and he played a prominent role in the development of Menominee County.  He owned much of the land on the Menominee side of the river, including extensive real estate on the riverfront and near the head of Ogden Avenue and what came to be known as Frenchtown. McLeod died in Menominee in 1893.  (2) (7) (1)

Andrus Eveland (1814-1901)

Andrus Eveland
Andrus Eveland was the first pioneer to settle on the Green Bay shore in Menominee.  Born in Yarmouth, Ontario, in 1814, Eveland became a Lake Erie sailor at age 17, travelling between Canada, Buffalo, Cleveland, and other ports.  In 1836 he moved to Chicago where he worked as a wheelsman and mate on the steamer Michigan, a freight and passenger boat that ran between Chicago and St. Joseph, Michigan.  After a stint building harbor piers in Racine, Eveland came with a crew of men to the Menominee River area in 1841 and built a fish shanty and cabin a half mile north of the river’s mouth.  When he left for the winter, a sawmill company burnt down his structures.  A chief of the Menominee tribe met him when he returned and handed him a blanket with the nails from his burnt shanties.  Eveland rebuilt in 1842 and became a permanent resident.  For many years he fished in the summer and fall and made shingles in the winter.  He owned much of the land which was to become the city, and, along with John Quimby, laid out the design for the village of Menominee.  He and his wife, the former Miss Lavina Moore, had nine children: Charles, Melissa, Henrietta, Mary, Almira, Joseph, Susan Emily, and Nellie.  In 1853 Eveland built the first frame house in the village, located at 1st St. and 14th Ave.  One early biographical statement recounts how, at age 84, Eveland had set out on his annual 3-mile hike to a campground at the start of the hunting season, carrying an 80-pound pack on his back.  Eveland died at Menominee on March 2, 1901.  (1) (8) (14) (19)

Riverside Cemetery Gravestone, John E. Quimby (1809-1874)

John E. Quimby
John Quimby settled in what was then known as the Village in 1845, and he was to become a central figure in its development.  At first Quimby was in charge of the fisheries and ran a boarding house on the river.  He subsequently built a tavern on what eventually became the site of the Kirby House at the intersection of 1st St. and 6th Ave.   As mentioned earlier, he and Andrus Eveland played major roles in laying out the village of Menominee.  Quimby platted the original village as "Quimby's Lots", and Eveland platted an addition.  At the time Quimby owned much of the land on which the city of Menominee now stands, but he never imagined that the settlement would ever amount to much.  For example, in the plans that he laid out Main Street was only thirty feet wide.  His peers at the time recalled Quimby saying that he did not want to live longer than to see a railroad pass through the woods.  At the time there were not only no railroads, but no wagon roads or other means of transportation except for boats on the river and the bay.  The surrounding country was unbroken forest which sold for $1.25 per acre.  Menominee County’s first election for county officers was held in May 1863, and Quimby was elected sheriff and a member of the Board of County Canvassers.  One biographer (1883) described Quimby as “a man of marked characteristics, and either a warm friend or a good hater.”  He was known as a powerful fighter and a skilled hunter.  Quimby died on Jan. 13, 1874, at the age of 65.  His wife, Almira, outlived him by six years and was the proprietor of the Quimby Hotel.  She was known for nursing the sick and for her kindness to all.  Quimby Ave. (now 6th Ave.) and Almyra St. (now  4th St.) were named after Quimby and his daughter.  (7) (10) (19) (13)

Our family moved from town to the Menominee River shore exactly 150 years after Louis Chappee first settled there.  It’s hard to imagine what people’s lives were like in those harsh, challenging times.  We owe a debt of gratitude to the men and women who created the communities from which many tens of thousands of Menominee and Marinette residents have subsequently benefitted.

SOURCES:  (1) The Menominee Evening Leader, Oct. 25, 1900, p. 8 (available from Spies Public Library, Menominee); (2), “Deep Woods Frontier, by Theodore J. Karamanski, Wayne State U. Press, 1989, p. 28; (3), Pioneer Society of the State of Michigan, “Pioneer Collections”, Vol. 1 (1877), p. 265; (4), “Menominee Range Memories” by William J. Cummings; (5), “John George ‘The Writer’ Kittson”; (6), “Stanislaus ‘Louis Chappee’ Chaput”; (7), ‘Menominee County,’ pp. 473-499 in Western Historical Company, “History of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan” (1883); (8), “Re” Who’s Your Moore”; (9), “Menominee County”; (10), “Nov. 2010 newsletter”; (11), “Chapee Rapids”; (12), “Charles Moore, “The History of Michigan.”  Chicago, 1915; (13), A. L. Sawyer, “A History of the Northern Peninsula of Michigan and its People,” 1911; (14), “Glines/Dean/Warnken/Anderegg/Eveland/Stufflebeam/Related and Very Unrelated Families”; (15), “Marinette County, Wisconsin: Genealogy and Local History”; (16), “Norman Wolfred Kittson”; (17), “Oconto County Families and Biographies: Chappue”; (18), "William Farnsworth - married Queen Marinette"; (19), “Centennial History of Menominee County” by E. S. Ingalls (1876); (20), “Menominee”